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Remarkable fossils push back snake origins by 65 million years

An artist rendering from oldest-known snake fossilsBy Will Dunham WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Snakes have been slithering on Earth far longer than anyone ever realized. Scientists on Tuesday described the four oldest-known snake fossils, the most ancient of which was a roughly 10-inch-long (25 cm) reptile called Eophis underwoodi unearthed in a quarry near Oxford, England, that lived about 167 million years ago. The remarkable fossils from Britain, Portugal and the United States rewrite the history of snake evolution, pushing back snake origins by tens of millions of years. Until now, the oldest snake fossil dated from about 102 million years ago, said University of Alberta paleontologist Michael Caldwell, who led the study published in the journal Nature Communications.


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Asteroid that buzzed Earth has a plus one, NASA says

By Irene Klotz CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (Reuters) - The mountain-sized asteroid that made a close pass by Earth on Monday has a small moon in tow, radar images released by NASA show. Asteroid 2004 BL86 flew about 745,000 miles (1.2 million km) from Earth, about three times farther than the moon, with closest approach coming at 11:19 a.m. EST (1619 GMT) on Monday. While it posed no threat to Earth, the flyby did provide astronomers an opportunity for some close-up studies without having to launch and operate a robotic probe. Radar images taken by NASA's Deep Space Network antenna in Goldstone, California, show the 1,100-foot (325 meter) wide asteroid has a small moon in orbit, NASA said.

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Scientists ask if Ebola immunizes as well as kills

A health worker disinfects a road in the Paynesville neighborhood of MonroviaBy Kate Kelland and Emma Farge LONDON/DAKAR (Reuters) - A recent sharp drop in new Ebola infections in West Africa is prompting scientists to wonder whether the virus may be silently immunizing some people at the same time as brutally killing their neighbors. So-called "asymptomatic" Ebola cases - in which someone is exposed to the virus, develops antibodies, but doesn't get sick or suffer symptoms - are hotly disputed among scientists, with some saying their existence is little more than a pipe dream. "We wonder whether 'herd immunity' is secretly coming up - when you get a critical mass of people who are protected, because if they are asymptomatic they are then immune," Philippe Maughan, senior operations administrator for the humanitarian branch of the European Commission, told Reuters. "The virus may be bumping into people it can't infect any more." Latest World Health Organization data show new cases of infection in West Africa's unprecedented Ebola epidemic dropping dramatically in Guinea, Sierra Leone and particularly in Liberia.


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Commercial space rides for U.S. astronauts to save millions: NASA

Astronauts onboard the International Space Station successfully capture the SpaceX Dragon spacecraftBy Irene Klotz CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla (Reuters) - The U.S. space program should save more than $12 million a seat flying astronauts to and from the International Space Station on commercial space taxis rather than aboard Russian capsules, the NASA program manager said on Monday. In September, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration awarded contracts worth up to a combined $6.8 billion to Boeing and privately owned Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, to fly crew to the station, a $100 billion research laboratory about 260 miles above Earth. Since retiring the space shuttles in 2011, the United States has depended on Russia's space agency, Roscosmos, to ferry astronauts to the orbital outpost. NASA expects to pay an average of $58 million a seat when its astronauts begin flying on Boeing’s CST-100 and SpaceX’s Dragon capsules in 2017, Kathy Lueders, manager of NASA’s Commercial Crew program, told reporters during a news conference in Houston and via conference call.


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University of Wisconsin closes laboratory, ending cat experiments

A University of Wisconsin research laboratory that attracted controversy for using live cats in experiments is closing this year, the school said. The University of Wisconsin at Madison said its Department of Neuroscience will no longer conduct experiments related to "sound localization" because Tom Yin, the department interim chair and chief researcher, is retiring at age 70. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals had criticized Yin for experiments the advocacy group said were cruel.

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Sugary Drinks Linked with Earlier Menstruation in Girls

Girls who drink a lot of soda and other sugary drinks may get their first menstrual periods earlier than girls who don't often consume these drinks, a new study suggests. Girls who drank more than 1.5 servings of sugary drinks daily started their menstrual periods nearly three months earlier than those who consumed two or fewer sugary drinks per week, the study found.

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Freshwater Fish are Disappearing: Where is the Global Response? (Op-Ed)

Freshwater Fish are Disappearing: Where is the Global Response? (Op-Ed)Sue Nichols is the assistant director of the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability at Michigan State University. Freshwater fish are global assets — like the waters they swim, they're practically everywhere. To millions of people in the developing world, they're a crucial source of food, often caught one line or net at a time. Yet freshwater fish are shy on lobbyists.


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US Obesity Rates Have Risen Most in Older Adults

Obesity rates have increased in most age groups in the United States in recent years, but the biggest rise has been in older adults, according to a new poll. Over the past five years, the obesity rate among people ages 65 and older has increased by 4 percentage points — from 23.4 percent in 2008 to 27.4 percent in 2014, according to the poll, from Gallup and Healthways. During that same time period, obesity rates among people ages 45 to 64 increased by 3.5 percentage points (from 29.5 percent to 33 percent), and obesity rates among people ages 30 to 44 increased by 2.3 percentage points (from 27.0 percent to 29.3 percent). Young adults ages 18 to 29 had the smallest increase, at just 0.3 percentage points (from 17.4 percent to 17.7 percent).

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Planetary Society's LightSail Solar Sail to Launch in May

Planetary Society's LightSail Solar Sail to Launch in MayA solar sail mission funded entirely by private citizens will launch to Earth orbit just a few months from now. The nonprofit Planetary Society announced today (Jan. 26) that its first LightSail spacecraft will blast off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in May from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, to test out critical systems and technologies ahead of a more involved solar sailing trial in 2016. “There's an old saying in aerospace: 'One test is worth a thousand expert opinions,'" Planetary Society CEO and TV "Science Guy" Bill Nye said in a statement.


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Found! 5 Ancient Alien Planets Nearly As Old As the Universe

Five rocky alien worlds that are 80 percent as old as the universe itself have been discovered, suggesting that Earth-size planets have been a feature of the Milky Way galaxy almost since its beginning. The newfound exoplanets circle Kepler-444, an 11.2-billion-year-old star about 25 percent smaller than the sun that lies 117 light-years from Earth. "We now know that Earth-sized planets have formed throughout most of the universe’s 13.8-billion-year history, which could provide scope for the existence of ancient life in the galaxy," lead study author Tiago Campante, of the University of Birmingham in England, said in a statement.

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Obama's 'precision medicine' plan to boost research, but faces hurdles

By Sharon Begley and Toni Clarke NEW YORK (Reuters) - President Barack Obama's plan to put the United States at the forefront of individually tailored medical treatment should give a much-needed boost to research in the field but experts say it won't work without reforms to healthcare, including drug testing and insurance. The administration is expected to give the first details this week on the "precision medicine" initiative that Obama announced in his Jan. 20 State of the Union address. Obama said he wanted the United States to "lead a new era of medicine, one that delivers the right treatment at the right time." Precision medicine seeks to identify and treat the exact form of disease in patients based on their genome - the precise order of molecules in their DNA - as well as other factors such as the interaction of genes and environment, and the microbes in their body. We are very, very far from doing that, but the payoff would be fantastic," said biologist Keith Yamamoto, vice chancellor of research at the University of California, San Francisco, medical school.

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New-generation solar panels far cheaper, more efficient - scientists

Workers walk among newly installed solar panels at a plant in Zhouquan township of TongxiangBy Magdalena Mis LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - A new generation of solar panels made from a mineral called perovskite has the potential to convert solar energy into household electricity more cheaply than ever before, according to a study from Briain's Exeter University. Super-thin, custom-coloured panels attached to a building's windows may become a "holy grail" for India and African countries, Senthilarasu Sundaram, one of the authors of the study, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. With a thickness measured in billionths of a metre, solar panels made of perovskite will be more than 40 percent cheaper and 50 percent more efficient than those commercially produced today, Sundaram said.


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Scientists ask if Ebola immunises as well as kills

Ebola survivor Alimamy Kanu poses for a picture at Devil Hole"The virus may be bumping into people it can't infect any more."     Latest World Health Organization data show new cases of infection in West Africa's unprecedented Ebola epidemic dropping dramatically in Guinea, Sierra Leone and particularly in Liberia.     Most experts are sure the main driver is better control measures reducing direct contact with contagious patients and corpses, but there may also be other factors at work.     So-called herd immunity is a feature of many infectious diseases and can, in some cases, dampen an outbreak if enough people get asymptomatic, or "sub-clinical" cases and acquire protective antibodies. After a while, the virus - be it flu, measles, polio - can't find non-immune people to be its hosts.     But some specialists with wide experience of disease outbreaks are highly sceptical about whether this phenomenon happens in Ebola, or whether it could affect an epidemic.     "There is some suggestion there may be cases that are less severe... and there may even be some that are asymptomatic," said David Heymann, an infectious disease expert and head of global health security at Chatham House.     "But herd immunity is just the wrong term.


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Venomous Cone Snails Weaponize Insulin to Stun Prey

Venomous Cone Snails Weaponize Insulin to Stun PreyAt least two species of cone snailhave turned insulin into an underwater weapon, a new study finds. When these stealthy aquatic snails approach their prey, they release insulin, a hormone that can cause blood sugar levels to plummet. The sudden influx of insulin can enter their gills and get into their bloodstream. "The snail has a very large mouth, and it kind of catches the fish within the large mouth," said the study's lead researcher, Helena Safavi, a research assistant professor of biology at the University of Utah.


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Football Physics: Why Deflated Balls Are Easier to Catch

After an inspection revealed that some of the footballs used during Sunday's NFL playoff game were slightly deflated, many people are asking whether the balls gave the New England Patriots an unfair advantage over the Indianapolis Colts. Last Sunday (Jan. 18), the Patriots landed a spot at the Super Bowl after beating the Colts 45 to 7. A ball that is less inflated is easier to deform and grip, said Miguel Morales, an associate professor of physics at the University of Washington. "Ideally, the way people are taught to catch it is to put their hands around the nose of the ball," Morales told Live Science.

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In a first, sea otter pup conceived in wild born in California lab

A baby sea otter has made history as the first pup born in captivity to a mother impregnated in the wild, and is healthy and developing normally, researchers in California said on Friday. The bundle of joy was born in November at the Long Marine Laboratory on the campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz, said Nicole Thometz, a researcher in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. To better the otter's chance of survival off the Central California shoreline, researchers are limiting their interaction with the pup, who was not named and whose sex is not known, she said.

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Art embraces science in new British play 'Oppenheimer'

Tom Morton-Smith, playwright of new play 'Oppenheimer' sits on a graphic of a 'bomb', at a rehearsal studio in London, Tuesday, Nov. 25, 2014. The Royal Shakespeare Company is doing Tom Morton-Smith's play about the physicist Robert Oppenheimer, who led the team that developed the first nuclear weapon.. (AP Photo/Kirsty Wigglesworth)LONDON (AP) — Suddenly, science is sexy. With Benedict Cumberbatch nominated for multiple trophies as Alan Turing and Eddie Redmayne turning heads as Stephen Hawking, young British actors playing scientists are all the rage this awards season.


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NASA's New Curiosity Rover Science Chief Takes Charge On Mars

NASA's New Curiosity Rover Science Chief Takes Charge On MarsAshwin Vasavada knows he has some pretty big shoes to fill. Vasavada is the newly appointed project scientist for NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, in charge of a team of nearly 500 researchers spread around the globe. He succeeds John Grotzinger, who steered Curiosity to some big finds over the past few years — including the discovery that Mars could have supported microbial life in the ancient past.


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The smoke around e-cig science

File photo of a customer puffing on an e-cigarette at the Henley Vaporium in New York CityBy Sara Ledwith LONDON (Reuters) - From Apple Pie to Bubbly Bubble Gum, Irish Car Bomb or Martian bar – from Mars!, the flavors of electronic cigarette offer something for every taste.


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Lake Tahoe's tiny creatures dying off at dramatic rate: scientist

Plowed snow forms a frame for Lake Tahoe near RenoThe smallest critters who occupy the bottom of the cold, clear waters of Lake Tahoe are dying off at an alarming rate and scientists are trying to find the cause to protect the fragile ecosystem of the lake high in the Sierra Nevada range. Scuba divers completed a first-ever circumnavigation of the shallow areas and certain deep spots last fall, collecting data that showed population drops in eight kinds of invertebrates that are only thumbnail-sized and smaller, including some only found in Lake Tahoe. "Our laboratory group was very surprised to see such a dramatic decline over a short period of time," University of Nevada, Reno scientist and associate professor Sudeep Chandra said in an email on Wednesday. Sitting at the base of a world-class ski area, Lake Tahoe is a tourist draw for its breathtaking beauty and outdoor activities, but has long faced environmental damage from development, boats and invasive species.


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Scientists create 'genetic firewall' for new forms of life

By Sharon Begley NEW YORK (Reuters) - A year after creating organisms that use a genetic code different from every other living thing, two teams of scientists have achieved another "synthetic biology" milestone: They created bacteria that cannot survive without a specific manmade chemical, potentially overcoming a major obstacle to wider use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The advance, reported on Wednesday in Nature, offers what one scientist calls a "genetic firewall" to achieve biocontainment, a means of insuring that GMOs cannot live outside a lab or other confined environment. Although the two labs accomplished this in bacteria, "there is no fundamental barrier" to applying the technique to plants and animals, Harvard Medical School biologist George Church, who led one of the studies, told reporters.

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Obama calls for major new personalised medicine initiative

President Barack Obama said in his State of the Union speech on Tuesday that his administration wants to launch a new push to use personalized genetic information to help treat diseases like cancer and diabetes. Obama urged Congress in his address to boost research funding to support new investments in "precision medicine." "I want the country that eliminated polio and mapped the human genome to lead a new era of medicine – one that delivers the right treatment at the right time," Obama said, noting the approach had helped reverse cystic fibrosis in some patients. "Tonight, I'm launching a new precision medicine initiative to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes – and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to keep ourselves and our families healthier." The sequencing of individual genomes, read-outs of a person's complete genetic information, could speed scientific research and help drug companies and physicians tailor medicines to an individual's genetic profile.

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Obama calls for major new personalized medicine initiative

U.S. President Barack Obama delivers his State of the Union address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on Capitol Hill in WashingtonPresident Barack Obama said in his State of the Union speech on Tuesday that his administration wants to launch a new push to use personalized genetic information to help treat diseases like cancer and diabetes. Obama urged Congress in his address to boost research funding to support new investments in "precision medicine." "I want the country that eliminated polio and mapped the human genome to lead a new era of medicine – one that delivers the right treatment at the right time," Obama said, noting the approach had helped reverse cystic fibrosis in some patients. "Tonight, I'm launching a new precision medicine initiative to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes – and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to keep ourselves and our families healthier." The sequencing of individual genomes, read-outs of a person's complete genetic information, could speed scientific research and help drug companies and physicians tailor medicines to an individual's genetic profile.


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Milky Way 'Bones' Could Reveal Secrets About Our Galaxy

Milky Way 'Bones' Could Reveal Secrets About Our GalaxyScientists are finding more evidence of a galactic "skeleton" lurking inside the appendages of the Milky Way, and studying these massive "bones" could help researchers get a better idea of what our galaxy looks like from the outside. At the time, only one such "bone" — known as Nessie — had been identified. Now, new research presented at the 225th meeting of the American Astronomical Society shows that Nessie is not alone. Catherine Zucker, an undergraduate physics student at the University of Virginia, has dug up six strong candidates for additional galactic bones.


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Food diversity under siege from global warming, UN says

By Chris Arsenault ROME (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Climate change threatens the genetic diversity of the world's food supply, and saving crops and animals at risk will be crucial for preserving yields and adapting to wild weather patterns, a U.N. policy paper said on Monday. Certain wild crops - varieties not often cultivated by today's farmers - could prove more resilient to a warming planet than some popular crop breeds, the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) said. Ensuring food security and protecting at-risk species in the face of climate change is one of "the most daunting challenges facing humankind", the paper said. Between 16 and 22 percent of wild crop species may be in danger of extinction within the next 50 years, said the FAO paper.

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Food diversity under siege from global warming, U.N. says

By Chris Arsenault ROME (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Climate change threatens the genetic diversity of the world's food supply, and saving crops and animals at risk will be crucial for preserving yields and adapting to wild weather patterns, a U.N. policy paper said on Monday. Certain wild crops - varieties not often cultivated by today's farmers - could prove more resilient to a warming planet than some popular crop breeds, the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) said. Ensuring food security and protecting at-risk species in the face of climate change is one of "the most daunting challenges facing humankind", the paper said. Between 16 and 22 percent of wild crop species may be in danger of extinction within the next 50 years, said the FAO paper.

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Last year was Earth's hottest on record, U.S. scientists say

A man bathes while sitting under a water tanker on a hot summer day on the outskirts of JammuBy Irene Klotz CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (Reuters) - Last year was Earth's hottest on record in new evidence that people are disrupting the climate by burning fossil fuels that release greenhouse gases into the air, two U.S. government agencies said on Friday. The White House said the studies, by the U.S. space agency NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), showed climate change was happening now and that action was needed to cut rising world greenhouse gas emissions. Last year was the warmest, ahead of 2010, undermining claims by some skeptics that global warming has stopped in recent years.


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Barren Deserts Can Host Complex Ecosystems

Barren Deserts Can Host Complex EcosystemsLife forms including bacteria, algae, fungi and lichens, as well as plants such as mosses and liverworts, can band together to create biological soil crusts in dry, nutrient-starved environments. "These are incredibly diverse microbial communities with hundreds of different organisms," said Jason Raymond, assistant professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University. Raymond is the senior author of three new papers in the scientific journal Genome Association, which shed light on the microbes that commonly set up shop in biological soil crusts in Utah's Moab Desert. Figuring out how life thrives in biological soil crusts, in conditions that would fell most other life on the planet, will help in gauging the habitability of other worlds.


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Can Crowdfunded Astronomy Work? (Op-Ed)

Can Crowdfunded Astronomy Work? (Op-Ed)The U.S. budget crises over the last decade have been particularly harsh to physics and astronomy. In 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope was nearly defunded until public outcry ensured its continuing operation. In 2011, the U.S. House Appropriations Committee tried to cancel NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, only for it to be saved by the U.S. Senate at the last moment. That same year, the NASA Constellation Program was not so lucky.


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How Congress is Cutting Science Out of Science Policy (Op-Ed)

Celia Wexler is a senior Washington Representative for the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), where she focuses on food and drug safety, protections for scientist whistle-blowers and government transparency and accountability. She is the author of "Out of the News: Former Journalists Discuss a Profession in Crisis" (McFarland, 2012). She contributed this article to Live Science's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights. You can say one thing about the U.S. House of Representatives leadership. The bill would take a sledge hammer to science-informed policymaking at federal agencies. Because instead of science informing the decisions our government makes about protecting our environment, public health and safety, those decisions would be driven by the wants of regulated industries, putting average Americans in jeopardy.

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Scientists raise alarm on China's fishy aqua farms - TRFN

Farmers collect dead fish from their fishponds in Xinjin county of ChengduBy Chris Arsenault ROME (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Fish farmers in China have been increasingly harvesting wild stocks in order to feed their caged varieties, putting new strains on the world's oceans, said new research from scientists at Stanford University. China is the world's largest producer and consumer of fish, contributing about one third of the global supply. Its production has tripled in the last 20 years, with about 75 percent coming from fish farms, according to the study published this week in the journal Science. If the industry used more waste from caught fish, along with plant proteins like algae or ethanol yeast to feed farmed fish, then aquaculture could become more sustainable, the study said.


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3,000-Mile Run Across US Has Scientists Following Marathoners

"The core team runners will experience a variety of obstacles throughout the Race Across USA, and our research program is positioned to examine how they respond and how the body and mind adapts," said research director Bryce Carlson, an assistant professor of anthropology at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. He added that significant benefits in heart health can be realized with 10 or 15 minutes of exercise a few times a week, at an intensity that leaves you speaking in broken sentences.

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Scientists raise alarm on China's fishy aqua farms

By Chris Arsenault ROME (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Fish farmers in China have been increasingly harvesting wild stocks in order to feed their caged varieties, putting new strains on the world's oceans, said new research from scientists at Stanford University. China is the world's largest producer and consumer of fish, contributing about one third of the global supply. Its production has tripled in the last 20 years, with about 75 percent coming from fish farms, according to the study published this week in the journal Science. If the industry used more waste from caught fish, along with plant proteins like algae or ethanol yeast to feed farmed fish, then aquaculture could become more sustainable, the study said.

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2014 Hottest Year Ever? Scientists Unveil Data Today

2014 Hottest Year Ever? Scientists Unveil Data TodayEven though winter is pummeling the United States with full force, expect today's (Jan. 16) weather news to focus on record heat. The temperature data will be released by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at 10:30 a.m. EST (3:30 p.m. GMT). A news conference with NASA and NOAA scientists will be held at 11 a.m. EST. NASA will stream live audio and graphics from the briefing at http://www.nasa.gov/newsaudio.


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NASA Pluto Probe Begins Science Observations Ahead of Epic Flyby

NASA Pluto Probe Begins Science Observations Ahead of Epic FlybyA NASA spacecraft's epic Pluto encounter is officially underway. NASA's New Horizons probe today (Jan. 15) began its six-month approach to Pluto, which will culminate with the first-ever close flyby of the dwarf planet on July 14. "We really are on Pluto's doorstep," New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern said last month during a news conference at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco. "In a very real sense, this is the Everest of planetary exploration," Stern said of New Horizons.


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Sea Turtles Use Earth's Magnetic Field to Find Home

Sea Turtles Use Earth's Magnetic Field to Find HomeFemale sea turtles, known to swim thousands of miles before returning to their birthplace to lay eggs, find their way home by relying on unique magnetic signatures along the coast, a new study finds. For more than 50 years, scientists have been mystified by how sea turtles do this, said the study's lead researcher, J. Roger Brothers, a graduate student of biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "Our results provide evidence that turtles imprint on the unique magnetic field of their natal beach as hatchlings, and then use this information to return as adults," Brothers said in a statement. Previous studies have shown that sea turtles use Earth's magnetic field to help guide them at sea, but it was unclear whether magnetic features also help steer them toward the nesting sites chosen by their mothers, the researchers said.


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Scientists tease out genes that signal risk of heart failure

WASHINGTON (AP) — Scientists are unraveling a mystery behind a fairly common disease that leads to heart failure: Why do some people with a key mutated gene fall ill while others stay healthy?

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Genome wiz Venter partners with Roche in DNA sequencing deal

Venter listens to opening statements at House Energy and Commerce hearing on Capitol Hill in WashingtonBy Julie Steenhuysen CHICAGO (Reuters) - Genome pioneer J. Craig Venter has signed a multi-year deal to sequence and analyze tens of thousands of genomes for Roche's Genentech unit in a deal aimed at identifying new drug targets and biomarkers, the companies said on Wednesday. The deal is one of the biggest yet for Venter's La Jolla, California based Human Longevity Inc (HLI), a start-up formed last March with the goal of sequencing 1 million genomes by 2020. Financial terms were not disclosed. "It's a big deal for HLI and Genentech. ...


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Scientists find key gene mutations behind inherited heart disease

A plastinated human heart is on display at the European Society of Cardiology meeting venue in AmsterdamBy Kate Kelland LONDON (Reuters) - Scientists have identified the crucial genetic mutations that cause a common heart condition called dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), paving the way for more accurate diagnosis and screening of high-risk patients. In a study of more than 5,000 people, researchers sequenced the gene encoding the muscle protein "titin", known to be linked to this leading cause of inherited heart failure, to try to find which variations in it caused problems. ...






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